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Research metrics

A guide to identifying and analysing research-related metrics, with support material and further guidance.for related tools

AI search tools

This page summarises some new and emerging search tools which rely on artificial intelligence / Large Language Models LLMs. for searching - the database interprets the text of the papers and tries to generate the most relevant answer from that. These tools can be useful for scoping a topic but do not allow for systematic, comprehensive replicable search strategies, such as might be required for a systematic review.

UCL does not have a subscription to any of these, but you may find them useful as alternative tools for your research.


Scite is a wide-ranging AI-supported tool. Its core feature is identifying and classifying citations based on whether the text surrounding them supports the cited work, is in contrast to it, or merely mentions it in passing. This allows it to factor this into citation-based searches and metrics, in a way that is not possible with most citation databases, and may mean you get more relevant and useful results.

Scite also offers an AI "search assistant", which tries to generate an answer to a question with citations to supporting literature. This is generally of good quality, and it is good for a summary overview, but should be treated with caution - it may have omissions and inaccuracies, and we would not recommend using it as your only search method. AI assistant tools like this often select the papers to highlight in a very idiosyncratic way, and may miss key papers.

UCL does not have a subscription to Scite, but individual users can register an account for a monthly fee.


Keenious is a tool to analyse the content of a document using large language models, and generates a list of relevant documents. It can be embedded in Microsoft Word or Google Documents, or use an uploaded file. The results are weighted by percieved relevance and similarity. Suggested papers can then be filtered by age, citation counts, or open access status, and the list can be exported for analysis or for import into a citation management tool.

This can be used to find similar research to a paper you are reading, or to help identify potential works connected to your own ongoing research.

UCL does not have a subscription to Keenious, but a limited-access account is available to individuals for free, or an expanded account with fewer restrictions for a monthly fee.


Consensus is an AI / LLM-powered search scientific academic search engine. It sources data from the Semantic Scholar dataset (which includes 200 million peer-reviewed documents across all domains of science). It analyses the most relevant papers and generates a summary of key findings. 

It also includes an integrated ChatGPT-style assistant, Consensus Copilot, which will answer questions, draft content, create lists, and more. 

UCL does not have a subscription to Consensus but you can carry out three free searches without creating an account, after which you can create a free account with limitations on the AI-enabled functionality, or subscribe for full functionality.