On this page you will find answers to some commonly asked questions about how to use the Harvard referencing style.
If you have a question that isn't answered on this page, get in touch with your librarian for further help.
This guide supports the UCL Library Services Harvard style, which has been developed for UCL staff and students. However, there are many variations of the Harvard style. If you are unsure which version you should be using, check your handbook or ask your course tutor.
Non-English language sources can be referenced the same way as English language sources.
If you are referencing a source which uses another alphabet, you should transliterate the details into the English alphabet.
For example, 鷲田清一. (2007). 京都の平熱 : 哲学者の都市案内. 東京: 講談社. should be written as:
Washida, K. (2007). Kyōto no heinetsu: tetsugakusha no toshi annai. Tōkyō: Kōdansha.
This is called 'secondary referencing'. In your in-text citation, you need to include information first on the additional work your source refers to, and then the source that you yourself read. An example would be (Jones, 1987 cited in Smith, 2012).
While it is important to include the required information your Reference list and in-text citation, sometimes sources are missing those details. Our section on references with missing details gives guidance on what to do when this happens.
If you are referencing a source with one, two or three authors, you include them all in your in-text citation. For four or more authors, you only include one author and the words 'et al', eg (Smith et al., 2012).
A single 'p.' is used for a single page (for example, p.32) while the double 'pp.' is used for a page range (such as pp.17-19).
You can do this by adding a lower-case letter to the publication date in your in-text citation, and again in your reference list so that the dates and letters match. So the first reference should appear as (Smith, 2012a), the second as (Smith, 2012b) and so on.
Unlike some referencing styles, Harvard does not have specific rules on how to format your work, beyond requiring that your reference list is alphabetical. Check your handbook or ask your course tutor to find out if you are required to format your work in a particular way.