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Harvard

This guide introduces the Harvard referencing style and includes examples of citations.

FAQ

On this page you will find answers to some commonly asked questions about how to use the Harvard referencing style. 

If you have a question that isn't answered on this page, get in touch with your librarian for further help.

Frequently asked questions

The Harvard referencing style on this guide is different to the one I have been using. Do I have to use this one instead?

This guide supports the UCL Library Services Harvard style, which has been developed for UCL staff and students. However, there are many variations of the Harvard style. If you are unsure which version you should be using, check your handbook or ask your course tutor. 

 

How do I reference a source that is not in English?

Non-English language sources can be referenced the same way as English language sources. 

If you are referencing a source which uses another alphabet, you should transliterate the details into the English alphabet. 

For example, 鷲田清一. (2007). 京都の平熱 : 哲学者の都市案内. 東京: 講談社. should be written as:

Washida, K. (2007). Kyōto no heinetsu: tetsugakusha no toshi annai. Tōkyō: Kōdansha.

 

The source I am referencing is quoting or citing another author. How do I show this in my citation?

This is called 'secondary referencing'. In your in-text citation, you need to include information first on the additional work your source refers to, and then the source that you yourself read. An example would be (Jones, 1987 cited in Smith, 2012).

 

I can't find the author's name/year of publication/publisher details/page numbers for my source. How do I reference it?

While it is important to include the required information your Reference list and in-text citation, sometimes sources are missing those details. Our section on references with missing details gives guidance on what to do when this happens.

 

The source I am referencing has more than one author. Do I include them all in my in-text citation? 

If you are referencing a source with one, two or three authors, you include them all in your in-text citation. For four or more authors, you only include one author and the words 'et al', eg (Smith et al., 2012). 

 

Do I use 'p.' or 'pp.' when referring to specific pages in my in-text citation or in my Reference list?

A single 'p.' is used for a single page (for example, p.32) while the double 'pp.' is used for a page range (such as pp.17-19).

 

I am referencing two sources by the same author that were both published in the same year. How do I distinguish between them in my in-text citation?

You can do this by adding a lower-case letter to the publication date in your in-text citation, and again in your reference list so that the dates and letters match. So the first reference should appear as (Smith, 2012a), the second as (Smith, 2012b) and so on.