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This guide introduces the Harvard referencing style and includes examples of citations.

Referencing glossary

A bibliography is a list of documents consulted but not necessarily referred to in a specific essay or assignment. A bibliography can also be a comprehensive list of works on a specific subject. 

Citation or Referencing style is the method used to format your citations. Some commonly used formats are Harvard, MLA, Chicago, APA and Vancouver.

Descriptive elements are the details that make up a reference. A few examples of these elements are: author, title, edition, date of publication, internet address, etc.

DOI or Digital Object Identifier is a numbered tag used to identify digital sources such as journal articles.

ed. is an abbreviation for 'editor'. For multiple editors, 'eds.' is used. 

edn. is the abbreviation in the Harvard style for 'edition' to avoid confusion with 'ed.' for 'editor'.

et al. is from the Latin, et alia, meaning 'and others' used in the Harvard author-date system for works having more than three authors.

ibid is used to indicate a reference is being repeated. It is not used in the Harvard referencing style. 

In-text citations are a method of signalling to the reader that the words or ideas quoted or referred to are not your own. The method for acknowledging the source document will vary according to the citation style you are using.

A Reference list is a list of all the documents you have referred to in your assignment or project. It is usually included at the end of your work. It may be arranged alphabetically or numerically and formatted according to one of the citation styles.

References are an accurate and complete description of a document or source. This may be a book, a journal article, a video, an email, a web page, etc. A reference should include sufficient descriptive elements to identify and locate the document.

sic. is from the Latin meaning 'so, thus'. It is used after a quoted or copied word that has been written exactly as the original. The term usually highlights a misspelling.